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    LARA FABIAN LYRICS

    "Broken Vow"

    By: Desy Natalia X Factor Indonesia

    Tell me her name
    I want to know
    The way she looks
    And where you go
    I need to see her face
    I need to understand
    Why you and I came to an end
    Tell me again
    I want to hear
    Who broke my faith in all these years
    Who lays with you at night
    When I'm here all alone
    Remembering when I was your own
    [Chorus:]
    I'll let you go
    I'll let you fly
    Why do I keep asking why
    I'll let you go
    Now that I found
    A way to keep somehow
    More than a broken vow
    Tell me the words I never said
    Show me the tears you never shed
    Give me the touch
    That one you promised to be mine
    Or has it vanished for all time
    [Chorus]
    I close my eyes
    And dream of you and I
    And then I realize
    There's more to life than only bitterness and lies
    I close my eyes
    I'd give away my soul
    To hold you once again
    And never let this promise end
    [Chorus]



    QUEEN SONG LYRICS & VIDEO


    "Soul Brother"

    By Desy Natalia

    God bless my soul here he comes now
    The man with the most how does he do it?
    Sure he's got style he's so heavy
    He's a trip can do anything
    Anything anything
    He's my soul brother

    He's my best friend he's my champion
    And he will rock you rock you rock you
    'Cause he's the saviour of the universe
    He can make you keep yourself alive
    Make yourself alive
    Ooh brother cause he's somebody somebody
    You can love
    He's my soul brother

    When you're under pressure feeling under pressure
    Yeah pressure yeah pressure
    He won't let you down
    When you're under pressure
    Oh feeling under pressure yeah pressure
    So he won't let you down
    My brother won't let you down
    He won't he won't he won't let you down
    He can do anything anything anything
    He's my soul brother

    Yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah
    Ooh soul brother anything (soul brother)
    Anything (soul brother) anything (soul brother)
    He's my soul brother brother brother brother brother
    Anything (soul brother) anything (soul brother) anything
    (soul brother)
    He's my soul brother

    Soul brother he can do anything
    He can do anything
    'Cause he's my soul brother

    CREED LYRICS & VIDEO


    "One Last Breath"

    Please come now I think I'm falling
    I'm holding on to all I think is safe
    It seems I found the road to nowhere
    And I'm trying to escape
    I yelled back when I heard thunder
    But I'm down to one last breath
    And with it let me say
    Let me say

    Hold me now
    I'm six feet from the edge and I'm thinking
    maybe six feet
    Ain't so far down

    I'm looking down now that it's over
    Reflecting on all of my mistakes
    I thought I found the road to somewhere
    Somewhere in His grace
    I cried out heaven save me
    But I'm down to one last breath
    And with it let me say
    Let me say

    [x2]
    Hold me now
    I'm six feet from the edge and I'm thinking
    maybe six feet
    Ain't so far down

    Sad eyes follow me
    But I still believe there's something left for me
    So please come stay with me
    'Cause I still believe there's something left for you and me
    For you and me
    For you and me

    Hold me now
    I'm six feet from the edge and I'm thinking

    [x2]
    Hold me now
    I'm six feet from the edge and I'm thinking
    maybe six feet
    Ain't so far down

    Please come now I think I'm falling
    I'm holding on to all I think is safe


    ROBBIE WILLIAMS LYRICS & VIDEO

    "Better Man"


    Send someone to love me
    I need to rest in arms
    Keep me safe from harm
    In pouring rain

    Give me endless summer
    Lord I fear the cold
    Feel I'm getting old
    Before my time

    As my soul heals the shame
    I will grow through this pain
    Lord I'm doing all I can
    To be a better man

    Go easy on my conscience
    'Cause it's not my fault
    I know I've been taught
    To take the blame

    Rest assured my angels
    Will catch my tears
    Walk me out of here
    I'm in pain

    As my soul heals the shame
    I will grow through this pain
    Lord I'm doing all I can
    To be a better man

    Once you've found that lover
    You're homeward bound
    Love is all around
    Love is all around

    I know some have fallen
    On stony ground
    But Love is all around

    Send someone to love me
    I need to rest in arms
    Keep me safe from harm
    In pouring rain

    Give me endless summer
    Lord I fear the cold
    Feel I'm getting old
    Before my time

    As my soul heals the shame
    I will grow through this pain
    Lord I'm doin' all I can
    To be a better man

    MAGIC! LYRICS & VIDEO


    "Rude"
    Saturday morning jumped out of bed
    And put on my best suit
    Got in my car and raced like a jet
    All the way to you
    Knocked on your door with heart in my hand
    To ask you a question
    'Cause I know that you're an old-fashioned man, yeah

    Can I have your daughter for the rest of my life?
    Say yes, say yes 'cause I need to know
    You say I'll never get your blessing 'til the day I die
    Tough luck, my friend, but the answer is 'No'

    Why you gotta be so rude?
    Don't you know I'm human too?
    Why you gotta be so rude?
    I'm gonna marry her anyway

    Marry that girl
    Marry her anyway
    Marry that girl
    Yeah, no matter what you say
    Marry that girl
    And we'll be a family
    Why you gotta be so
    Rude

    I hate to do this, you leave no choice
    Can't live without her
    Love me or hate me we will be boys
    Standing at that altar
    Or we will run away
    To another galaxy, you know
    You know she's in love with me
    She will go anywhere I go

    Can I have your daughter for the rest of my life?
    Say yes, say yes 'cause I need to know
    You say I'll never get your blessing 'til the day I die
    Tough luck, my friend, 'cause the answer's still 'No"

    Why you gotta be so rude?
    Don't you know I'm human too?
    Why you gotta be so rude?
    I'm gonna marry her anyway

    Marry that girl
    Marry her anyway
    Marry that girl
    No matter what you say
    Marry that girl
    And we'll be a family
    Why you gotta be so
    Rude
    Rude

    Can I have your daughter for the rest of my life?
    Say yes, say yes 'cause I need to know
    You say, I'll never get your blessing 'til the day I die
    Tough luck, my friend, but 'No' still means 'No'!

    Why you gotta be so rude?
    Don't you know I'm human too?
    Why you gotta be so rude?
    I'm gonna marry her anyway

    Marry that girl
    Marry her anyway
    Marry that girl
    No matter what you say
    Marry that girl
    And we'll be a family
    Why you gotta be so
    Rude
    Why you gotta be so
    Rude
    Why you gotta be so rude?



    ELVIPS - Sejumlah musisi papan atas Indonesia maupun mancanegara menampilkan kebolehannya di atas panggung di acaraIndonesian Choice Awards 2015 dalam rangka memperingati hari ulang tahun ke-2 stasiun televisi NET, di Indonesia Convention Exhebition (ICE), BSD City, Tangerang, Minggu malam (24/5/2015).
    Musisi Indonesia, Agnez Mo menjadi pembuka di acara yang dihadiri oleh puluhan artis tanah air. Agnes Monica yang tampil bersama dancer, menjadi suasana panggung pun menjadi ramai.
    Agnes bukanlah satu-satunya penyanyi yang berada di atas panggung megah itu, tetapi dengan kehadiran musisi asal Amerika Serikat, DemiLovato pun sukses merebut perhatian para penonton undangan yang memadati venue megah ICE.
    Demi Lovato © Fameflynet
    Demi Lovato © Fameflynet
    Penonton pun histeris saat penyanyi 22 tahun itu muncul di atas panggung dengan busana serba hitam. Apalagi ditambah dengan ada asap di atas panggung. Setelah kemunculan Demi, para penonton yang hadir pun menjerit semakin histeris.
    "Terima kasih. Saya sangat bersemangat untuk bernyanyi bagi kalian. Bagaimana dengan kalian?," tanya Demi, di atas panggung.
    Demi pun langsung membuka penampilannya dengan lagu andalannya,Let It Go. Dipenampilan kedua, Demi langsung membawakan lahi Give You Heart a Break yang semakin meramaikan acara tersebut. Setelah itu, Demi langsung menyambung penampilannya dengan dua lagu lainnya yakni, Heart Attack, dan Neon Light. "Thank you NET," tutup Demi.
    Agnezmo dan Karmin mambuka NET 2.0 Celebration
    Meriah, Indonesian Choice Awards 2015 Dibuka Agnez Mo - Karmin
    Selamat ulang tahun untuk NET Entertainment News yang kini berumur 2 tahun. Menggelar acara Indonesian Choice Awards 2015, panggung acara pun dibuka dengan penampilan meriah dari dua penyanyi top beda negara.
    Didaulat sebagai penampil pertama, Agnes Monica menggebrak panggung Indonesian Choice Awards 2015 (ICA 2015) dengan hits singleCoke Bottle. Bersama sejumlah dancer andalannya, penonton dibuat berteriak histeris oleh penampilan Agnes.
    Tapi rupanya penampilan meriah tersebut dibuat semakin lengkap begitu Agnes Monica selesai beraksi. Lewat lagu Brokenhearted, duo Amerika,Karmin, melanjutkan gairah semangat ulang tahun NET dan ICA 2015 kali ini.
    Coke Bottle semarakkan ICA 2015 di ulang tahun NET Entertainment ©Twitter.com/netmediatama
    Coke Bottle semarakkan ICA 2015 di ulang tahun NET Entertainment ©Twitter.com/netmediatama
    Walau begitu, Iwan Fals yang diplot untuk tampil setelah Karmin pun tak kalah heboh dan epic ketika membawakan lagunya yang berjudulPesawat Tempur. Dibawakan secara full band, musisi senior yang satu ini pun menambah sedikit unsur instrumen ala orkestra yang tentunya membuat lagu ini semakin mewah.
    ICA 2015 kali ini sendiri masih akan memberikan banyak penampilan apik. Selain dipandu oleh David Bayu dan Sarah Sechan, akan ada penampilan dari NidjiRANTulusSheila On 7, dan tentu yang paling ditunggu-tunggu, Demi Lovato.
    Acara yang dimulai tepat pada pukul 19.30 di Convention Exhibition Center, BSD City, Tangerang ini pun akan memberikan 10 nominasi bagi para insan terbaik di dunia hiburan pilihan kamu. So, stay tune terus diKapanLagi.com® untuk update beritanya.

    Pemenang dan Nominasi 

    Indonesian Choice Awards 2015 Net TV


    Stasiun Televisi Net TV kembali mengadakan penghargaan kepada Insan Musik, Film dan Program TV dalam Net 2.0 presents Indonesian Choice Awards 2015. Program penghargaan Pemenang Indonesian Choice Awards 2015 ini merupakan yang kedua kalinya diadakan. Berbeda dengan program penghargaan lainnya Indonesian Choice Awards 2015 Net TV menggunakan sistem voting dari media sosial twitter.
    Acara Indonesian Choice Awards 2015 Net TV digelar pada Minggu, 24 Mei 2015, dan disiarkan live oleh Net TV. Dari masing-masing Nominator dalam setiap Kategori bersaing untuk menjadi pemenang. Setiap Nominator sangat membutuhkan dukungan dengan cara :

    Tweet dengan format :

    #NET2_ICA #kategori_nominator @netmediatama
    Syarat dan Ketentuan

    1.Satu account Twitter hanya dapat memilih satu nominator dalam satu kategori
    2.Yang berhak memberikan vote hanya yang memiliki minimal 50 Follower
    3.Penulisan huruf besar / huruf kecil dalam hashtag tidak berpengaruh
    4.Penulisan hashtag tidak harus berurutan
    5.Retweet yang berisikan format hashtag diatas dianggap sebagai satu vote yang valid
    6.Daftar lengkap nominasi dan format hashtag nominator dapat dilihat di Nominees.

    Segera berikan dukungan kepada para nominator idola/favorit Anda agar menjadi pemenang di Indonesian Choice Awards 2015. Daftar Kategori dan NominasiPemenang Indonesian Choice Awards 2015.


    Kategori dan Nominasi Pemenang Indonesian Choice Awards 2015
    Kategori Song Of  The Year
    Kunto Aji (Terlalu Lama Sendiri)
    Sheila On7 (Lapang Dada) PEMENANG
    Yura (Cinta dan Rahasia)
    Trio Lestari (Gelora Cinta)
    The Rain (Gagal bersembunyi)

    Kategori Album Of  The Year
    Maliq & DEssentials (Musik Pop)
    Mata Jiwa (Album 1 Part 2)
    Trio Lestari (Wangi)
    GiGi (Live At Abby)
    Sheila On7 (Musim Yang Baik) PEMENANG

    Kategori Male Singer Of The Year
    Kunto Aji
    Virzha
    Judika PEMENANG
    Ipang Lazuardi
    Teza Sumendra

    Kategori Female Singer Of  The Year
    Maudy Ayunda PEMENANG
    Rinni Wulandari
    Andien
    Isyana Sarasvati
    Yura

    Kategori Band Group Duo Of  The Year
    Sheila On7 PEMENANG
    Slank
    Trio Lestari
    Endank Soekamti
    Matajiwa

    Kategori Break Through Artist Of  The Year
    Neuratic
    Art Of Tree
    Yura
    Kunto Aji PEMENANG
    Isyana Sarasvati

    Kategori Movie of The Year
    Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijek
    Marmut Merah Jambu PEMENANG
    99 Cahaya di Langit Eropa
    Soekarno
    Di Balik 98

    Kategori Actor Of  The Year 
    Vino G Bastian PEMENANG
    Reza Rahadian
    Herjunot Ali
    Nicholas Saputra
    Raditya Dika

    Kategori Actress Of  The Year 
    Dian Sastrowardoyo
    Acha Septriasa
    Chelsea Islan PEMENANG
    Laudya Cynthia Bella
    Pevita Pearce

    Kategori TV Program Of  The Year
    Hitam Putih (Trans7)
    Kick Andy (Metro TV)
    Mata Najwa (Metro TV)
    Indonesian Lawak Klub (Trans7)
    Mario Teguh Golden Ways (Metro TV) PEMENANG 

    Kategori Digital Persona Of The Year
    Darius Sinathrya
    Najwa Shihab
    Panji Pragiwaksono
    Raditya Dika PEMENANG
    Vidi Aldiano

    ,


    ELVIPS.COM - Billboard Music Awards 2015 sudah resmi dihelat Minggu malam (17/5). Rapper Ludacris kembali menjadi host bersama istri John Legend, Chrissy Teigen.
    Taylor Swift yang merilis video terbarunya Bad Blood bersamaan dengan acara BBMA memimpin para nominator lainnya dengan 14 nomor nominasi. Diikuti oleh Sam Smith dengan 13 nomor, kemudian Iggy Azalea dengan 12 dan Meghan Trainor dengan 9.
    Ajang penghargaan terhebat tahun 2015 ini bertempat di MGM Grand Garden Arena, Las Vegas. ABC menjadi media partner untuk menyiarkan secara langsung acara yang dimulai dari jam 8 malam waktu setempat ini. Berikut nama-nama pemenang dari Billboard Music Awards 2015.
    TOP FEMALE ARTIST
    Taylor Swift / WINNER
    Iggy Azalea
    Ariana Grande
    Katy Perry
    Meghan Trainor
    TOP RADIO SONG
    John Legend, "All of Me" / WINNER
    MAGIC!, "Rude"
    Nico & Vinz, "Am I Wrong"
    Sam Smith, "Stay With Me"
    Pharrell Williams, "Happy
    TOP MALE ARTIST
    Sam Smith / WINNER
    Drake
    Pharrell Williams
    Ed Sheeran
    Justin Timberlake
    TOP DANCE/ELECTRONIC ARTIST
    Calvin Harris / WINNER
    Avicii
    Clean Bandit
    Disclosure
    Lindsey Stirling
    TOP BILLBOARD 200 ARTIST
    Taylor Swift / WINNER
    One Direction
    Pentatonix
    Ed Sheeran
    Sam Smith
    TOP LATIN ARTIST
    Romeo Santos / WINNER
    J Balvin
    Juan Gabriel
    Enrique Iglesias
    Prince Royce
    TOP ROCK ARTIST
    Hozier / WINNER
    Bastille
    Coldplay
    Fall Out Boy
    Lorde
    TOP R&B ARTIST
    Pharrell Williams / WINNER
    Beyonc
    Chris Brown
    John Legend
    Trey Songz
    TOP STREAMING ARTIST
    Iggy Azalea / WINNER
    Ariana Grande
    Nicki Minaj
    Taylor Swift
    Meghan Trainor
    TOP SOCIAL ARTIST
    Justin Bieber / WINNER
    Miley Cyrus
    Selena Gomez
    Ariana Grande
    Taylor Swift
    TOP DIGITAL SONGS ARTIST
    Taylor Swift / WINNER
    Iggy Azalea
    Ed Sheeran
    Sam Smith
    Meghan Trainor
    TOP HOT 100 ARTIST
    Taylor Swift / WINNER
    Iggy Azalea
    Ariana Grande
    Sam Smith
    Meghan Trainor
    TOP NEW ARTIST
    Sam Smith / WINNER
    5 Seconds of Summer
    Iggy Azalea
    Hozier
    Meghan Trainor
    TOP RAP SONG
    Iggy Azalea feat. Charli XCX, "Fancy" / WINNER
    Iggy Azalea feat. Rita Ora, "Black Widow"
    Big Sean feat. E-40, "I Don't F With You"
    Nicki Minaj, "Anaconda"
    Bobby Shmurda, "Hot Boy"
    TOP BILLBOARD 200 ALBUM
    Taylor Swift, 1989 / WINNER
    Maroon 5, V
    Pentatonix, That's Christmas to Me
    Ed Sheeran, x
    Sam Smith, In the Lonely Hour
    TOP DUO/GROUP
    One Direction (WINNER) / WINNER
    5 Seconds of Summer
    Florida Georgia Line
    MAGIC!
    Maroon 5
    TOP CHRISTIAN ARTIST
    Hillsong United / WINNER
    Casting Crowns
    Lecrae
    MercyMe
    Newsboys
    TOP SOUNDTRACK
    Frozen / WINNER
    The Fault in Our Stars
    Fifty Shades of Grey
    Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix: Vol. 1
    Into the Woods
    TOP R&B ALBUM
    Pharrell Williams, G I R L / WINNER
    Beyonc, Beyonc
    Chris Brown, X
    Michael Jackson, Xscape
    John Legend, Love in the Future

    TOP RAP ALBUM
    J. Cole, 2014 Forest Hills Drive / WINNER
    Drake, If You're Reading This It's Too Late
    Nicki Minaj, The Pinkprint
    Iggy Azalea, The New Classic
    Eminem, The Marshall Mathers LP 2
    TOP COUNTRY ALBUM
    Jason Aldean, Old Boots, New Dirt / WINNER
    Garth Brooks, Man Against Machine
    Luke Bryan, Crash My Party
    Brantley Gilbert, Just As I Am
    Miranda Lambert, Platinum
    TOP ROCK ALBUM
    Coldplay, Ghost Stories / WINNER
    AC/DC, Rock or Bust
    The Black Keys, Turn Blue
    Hozier, Hozier
    Lorde, Pure Heroine
    TOP CHRISTIAN ALBUM
    Lecrae, Anomaly / WINNER
    Casting Crowns, Thrive
    MercyMe, Welcome to the New
    NEEDTOBREATHE, Rivers in the Wasteland
    Chris Tomlin, Love Ran Red
    TOP DIGITAL SONG
    Meghan Trainor, "All About That Bass" / WINNER
    Mark Ronson feat. Bruno Mars, "Uptown Funk!"
    Sam Smith, "Stay With Me"
    Taylor Swift, "Shake It Off"
    Pharrell Williams, "Happy
    TOP LATIN ALBUM
    Enrique Iglesias, Sex and Love / WINNER
    Juan Gabriel, Los Do
    Romeo Santos, Formula: Vol. 2
    Santana, Corazon
    Marc Anthony, 3.0
    TOP DANCE/ELECTRONIC ALBUM
    Lindsey Stirling, Shatter Me / WINNER
    Avicii, True
    Disclosure, Settle
    Calvin Harris, Motion
    Skrillex, Recess
    TOP ARTIST
    Taylor Swift / WINNER
    Ariana Grande
    One Direction
    Katy Perry
    Sam Smith
    TOP RADIO SONGS ARTIST
    John Legend
    Maroon 5
    Ed Sheeran
    Sam Smith / WINNER
    Taylor Swift
    TOP TOURING ARTIST
    Lady Gaga
    One Direction / WINNER
    Katy Perry
    The Rolling Stones
    Justin Timberlake
    TOP RAP ARTIST
    Iggy Azalea / WINNER
    J. Cole
    Drake
    Nicki Minaj
    Rae Sremmurd
    TOP COUNTRY ARTIST
    Jason Aldean
    Luke Bryan
    Florida Georgia Line / WINNER
    Brantley Gilbert
    Blake Shelton
    TOP HOT 100 SONG
    Iggy Azalea feat. Charli XCX, "Fancy"
    John Legend, "All of Me"
    Sam Smith, "Stay With Me"
    Taylor Swift, "Shake It Off"
    Meghan Trainor, "All About That Bass" / WINNER
    TOP STREAMING SONG (AUDIO)
    John Legend, "All of Me" / WINNER
    Iggy Azalea feat. Charli XCX, "Fancy"
    Hozier, "Take Me to Church"
    Sam Smith, "Stay With Me"
    Tove Lo, "Habits (Stay High)"
    TOP STREAMING SONG (VIDEO)
    Idina Menzel, "Let It Go"
    Bobby Shmurda, "Hot Boy"
    Taylor Swift, "Blank Space"
    Taylor Swift, "Shake It Off" / WINNER
    Meghan Trainor, "All About That Bass"
    TOP R&B SONG
    Pharrell Williams, "Happy" / WINNER
    Chris Brown feat. Lil Wayne, French Montana, Too $hort & Tyga, "Loyal"
    Jason Derulo feat. 2 Chainz, "Talk Dirty"
    Jeremih feat. YG, "Don't Tell Em"
    John Legend, "All of Me"
    TOP COUNTRY SONG
    Jason Aldean, "Burnin' It Down" / WINNER
    Luke Bryan, "Play It Again"
    Sam Hunt, "Leave the Night On"
    Florida Georgia Line feat. Luke Bryan, "This Is How We Roll"
    Florida Georgia Line, "Dirt"
    TOP ROCK SONG
    Hozier, Take Me to Church / WINNER
    Bastille, Pompeii
    Coldplay, A Sky Full of Stars
    Fall Out Boy, Centuries
    Paramore, Ain't It Fun
    TOP LATIN SONG
    Enrique Iglesias feat. Descemer Bueno & Gente de Zona, "Bailando" / WINNER
    J Balvin feat. Farruko, "6 AM"
    Romeo Santos, "Eres Ma"
    Romeo Santos feat. Drake, "Odio"
    Romeo Santos, "Propuesta Indecente"
    TOP DANCE/ELECTRONIC SONG
    DJ Snake & Lil Jon, "Turn Down For What" / WINNER
    Clean Bandit feat. Jess Glynne, "Rather Be"
    Disclosure feat. Sam Smith, "Latch"
    Ariana Grande feat. Zedd, "Break Free"
    Calvin Harris, "Summer"
    TOP CHRISTIAN SONG
    Carrie Underwood, "Something in the Water" / WINNER
    Francesca Battistelli, "He Knows My Name"
    Hillsong United, "Oceans (Where Feet May Fail)"
    MercyMe, "Greater"
    Newsboys, "We Believe"
    BILLBOARD CHART ACHIEVEMENT AWARD PRESENTED BY SAMSUNG GALAXY (FAN-VOTED)
    Iggy Azalea
    Taylor Swift / WINNER
    Meghan Trainor

    , ,

    Elvis Aaron Presley[a] (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as "the King of Rock and Roll", or simply, "the King".

    Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and when he was 13 years old, he and his family relocated to Memphis, Tennessee. His music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was an early popularizer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who managed the singer for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the leading figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records. His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines that coincided with the dawn of the Civil Rights Movement, made him enormously popular—and controversial.

    In November 1956, he made his film debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service. He resumed his recording career two years later, producing some of his most commercially successful work before devoting much of the 1960s to making Hollywood movies and their accompanying soundtrack albums, most of which were critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed televised comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of highly profitable tours. In 1973, Presley was featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of prescription drug abuse severely damaged his health, and he died in 1977 at the age of 42. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century. Commercially successful in many genres, including pop, blues and gospel, he is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music,[5][6][7][8] with estimated record sales of around 600 million units worldwide.[9] He won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Forbes named Elvis Presley as the 2nd top earning dead celebrity with $55 million as of 2011

    Presley was born on January 8, 1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, the son of Vernon Elvis Presley (April 10, 1916 – June 26, 1979) and Gladys Love Presley (née Smith, April 25, 1912 – August 14, 1958),[12] in the two-room shotgun house built by Vernon's father in preparation for the child's birth. Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before him.[13] As an only child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God church, where he found his initial musical inspiration.[14]

    Presley's ancestry was primarily a Western European mix: on his mother's side, he was Scots-Irish, with some French Norman; Gladys' great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American.[15][16][b] Presley's father's forebears were of Scottish[19] and German[20] origin. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family. Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evidencing little ambition.[21][22] The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance. The Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean, the dairy farmer and cattle-and-hog broker for whom he then worked. He was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relatives.[23]

    In September 1941, Presley entered first grade at East Tupelo Consolidated, where his instructors regarded him as "average".[24] He was encouraged to enter a singing contest after impressing his schoolteacher with a rendition of Red Foley's country song "Old Shep" during morning prayers. The contest, held at the Mississippi-Alabama Fair and Dairy Show on October 3, 1945, was his first public performance: dressed as a cowboy, the ten-year-old Presley stood on a chair to reach the microphone and sang "Old Shep". He recalled placing fifth.[25] A few months later, Presley received his first guitar for his birthday; he had hoped for something else—by different accounts, either a bicycle or a rifle.[26][27] Over the following year, he received basic guitar lessons from two of his uncles and the new pastor at the family's church. Presley recalled, "I took the guitar, and I watched people, and I learned to play a little bit. But I would never sing in public. I was very shy about it."[28]

    Entering a new school, Milam, for sixth grade in September 1946, Presley was regarded as a loner. The following year, he began bringing his guitar in on a daily basis. He played and sang during lunchtime, and was often teased as a "trashy" kid who played hillbilly music. The family was by then living in a largely African-American neighborhood.[29] A devotee of Mississippi Slim's show on the Tupelo radio station WELO, Presley was described as "crazy about music" by Slim's younger brother, a classmate of Presley's, who often took him into the station. Slim supplemented Presley's guitar tuition by demonstrating chord techniques.[30] When his protégé was 12 years old, Slim scheduled him for two on-air performances. Presley was overcome by stage fright the first time, but succeeded in performing the following week.[31]
    Teenage life in Memphis

    In November 1948, the family moved to Memphis, Tennessee. After residing for nearly a year in rooming houses, they were granted a two-bedroom apartment in the public housing complex known as the Lauderdale Courts.[32] Enrolled at L. C. Humes High School, Presley received only a C in music in eighth grade. When his music teacher told him he had no aptitude for singing, he brought in his guitar the next day and sang a recent hit, "Keep Them Cold Icy Fingers Off Me", in an effort to prove otherwise. A classmate later recalled that the teacher "agreed that Elvis was right when he said that she didn't appreciate his kind of singing."[33] He was usually too shy to perform openly, and was occasionally bullied by classmates who viewed him as a "mama's boy".[34] In 1950, he began practicing guitar regularly under the tutelage of Jesse Lee Denson, a neighbor two-and-a-half years his senior. They and three other boys—including two future rockabilly pioneers, brothers Dorsey and Johnny Burnette—formed a loose musical collective that played frequently around the Courts.[35] That September, he began ushering at Loew's State Theater.[36] Other jobs followed, including Precision Tool, Loew's again, and MARL Metal Products.[37]

    During his junior year, Presley began to stand out more among his classmates, largely because of his appearance: he grew out his sideburns and styled his hair with rose oil and Vaseline. On his own time, he would head down to Beale Street, the heart of Memphis's thriving blues scene, and gaze longingly at the wild, flashy clothes in the windows of Lansky Brothers. By his senior year, he was wearing them.[38] Overcoming his reticence about performing outside the Lauderdale Courts, he competed in Humes's Annual "Minstrel" show in April 1953. Singing and playing guitar, he opened with "Till I Waltz Again with You", a recent hit for Teresa Brewer. Presley recalled that the performance did much for his reputation: "I wasn't popular in school ... I failed music—only thing I ever failed. And then they entered me in this talent show ... when I came onstage I heard people kind of rumbling and whispering and so forth, 'cause nobody knew I even sang. It was amazing how popular I became after that."[39]

    Presley, who never received formal music training or learned to read music, studied and played by ear. He also frequented record stores with jukeboxes and listening booths. He knew all of Hank Snow's songs,[40] and he loved records by other country singers such as Roy Acuff, Ernest Tubb, Ted Daffan, Jimmie Rodgers, Jimmie Davis, and Bob Wills.[41] The Southern Gospel singer Jake Hess, one of his favorite performers, was a significant influence on his ballad-singing style.[42][43] He was a regular audience member at the monthly All-Night Singings downtown, where many of the white gospel groups that performed reflected the influence of African-American spiritual music.[44] He adored the music of black gospel singer Sister Rosetta Tharpe.[41] Like some of his peers, he may have attended blues venues—of necessity, in the segregated South, on only the nights designated for exclusively white audiences.[45] He certainly listened to the regional radio stations, such as WDIA-AM, that played "race records": spirituals, blues, and the modern, backbeat-heavy sound of rhythm and blues.[46] Many of his future recordings were inspired by local African-American musicians such as Arthur Crudup and Rufus Thomas.[47][48] B.B. King recalled that he had known Presley before he was popular, when they both used to frequent Beale Street.[49] By the time he graduated from high school in June 1953, Presley had already singled out music as his future.[50][51]
    First recordings (1953–55)
    Sam Phillips and Sun Records
    See also: List of songs recorded by Elvis Presley on the Sun label


    Presley in a Sun Records promotional photograph, 1954

    In August 1953, Presley walked into the offices of Sun Records. He aimed to pay for a few minutes of studio time to record a two-sided acetate disc: "My Happiness"[52] and "That's When Your Heartaches Begin". He would later claim that he intended the record as a gift for his mother, or that he was merely interested in what he "sounded like", although there was a much cheaper, amateur record-making service at a nearby general store. Biographer Peter Guralnick argues that he chose Sun in the hope of being discovered. Asked by receptionist Marion Keisker what kind of singer he was, Presley responded, "I sing all kinds." When she pressed him on who he sounded like, he repeatedly answered, "I don't sound like nobody." After he recorded, Sun boss Sam Phillips asked Keisker to note down the young man's name, which she did along with her own commentary: "Good ballad singer. Hold."[53]

    In January 1954, Presley cut a second acetate at Sun Records—"I'll Never Stand In Your Way" and "It Wouldn't Be the Same Without You"—but again nothing came of it.[54] Not long after, he failed an audition for a local vocal quartet, the Songfellows. He explained to his father, "They told me I couldn't sing."[55] Songfellow Jim Hamill later claimed that he was turned down because he did not demonstrate an ear for harmony at the time.[56] In April, Presley began working for the Crown Electric company as a truck driver.[57] His friend Ronnie Smith, after playing a few local gigs with him, suggested he contact Eddie Bond, leader of Smith's professional band, which had an opening for a vocalist. Bond rejected him after a tryout, advising Presley to stick to truck driving "because you're never going to make it as a singer".[58]

    Phillips, meanwhile, was always on the lookout for someone who could bring to a broader audience the sound of the black musicians on whom Sun focused. As Keisker reported, "Over and over I remember Sam saying, 'If I could find a white man who had the Negro sound and the Negro feel, I could make a billion dollars.'"[59] In June, he acquired a demo recording of a ballad, "Without You", that he thought might suit the teenage singer. Presley came by the studio, but was unable to do it justice. Despite this, Phillips asked Presley to sing as many numbers as he knew. He was sufficiently affected by what he heard to invite two local musicians, guitarist Winfield "Scotty" Moore and upright bass player Bill Black, to work something up with Presley for a recording session.[60]

    Presley transformed not only the sound but the emotion of the song, turning what had been written as a "lament for a lost love into a satisfied declaration of independence."[61]
    Problems playing this file? See media help.

    The session, held the evening of July 5, 1954, proved entirely unfruitful until late in the night. As they were about to give up and go home, Presley took his guitar and launched into a 1946 blues number, Arthur Crudup's "That's All Right". Moore recalled, "All of a sudden, Elvis just started singing this song, jumping around and acting the fool, and then Bill picked up his bass, and he started acting the fool, too, and I started playing with them. Sam, I think, had the door to the control booth open ... he stuck his head out and said, 'What are you doing?' And we said, 'We don't know.' 'Well, back up,' he said, 'try to find a place to start, and do it again.'" Phillips quickly began taping; this was the sound he had been looking for.[62] Three days later, popular Memphis DJ Dewey Phillips played "That's All Right" on his Red, Hot, and Blue show.[63] Listeners began phoning in, eager to find out who the singer was. The interest was such that Phillips played the record repeatedly during the last two hours of his show. Interviewing Presley on-air, Phillips asked him what high school he attended in order to clarify his color for the many callers who had assumed he was black.[52][64] During the next few days, the trio recorded a bluegrass number, Bill Monroe's "Blue Moon of Kentucky", again in a distinctive style and employing a jury-rigged echo effect that Sam Phillips dubbed "slapback". A single was pressed with "That's All Right" on the A side and "Blue Moon of Kentucky" on the reverse.[65]
    Early live performances and signing with RCA

    The trio played publicly for the first time on July 17 at the Bon Air club—Presley still sporting his child-size guitar.[66] At the end of the month, they appeared at the Overton Park Shell, with Slim Whitman headlining. A combination of his strong response to rhythm and nervousness at playing before a large crowd led Presley to shake his legs as he performed: his wide-cut pants emphasized his movements, causing young women in the audience to start screaming.[67] Moore recalled, "During the instrumental parts he would back off from the mike and be playing and shaking, and the crowd would just go wild".[68] Black, a natural showman, whooped and rode his bass, hitting double licks that Presley would later remember as "really a wild sound, like a jungle drum or something".[68] Soon after, Moore and Black quit their old band to play with Presley regularly, and DJ and promoter Bob Neal became the trio's manager. From August through October, they played frequently at the Eagle's Nest club and returned to Sun Studio for more recording sessions,[69] and Presley quickly grew more confident on stage. According to Moore, "His movement was a natural thing, but he was also very conscious of what got a reaction. He'd do something one time and then he would expand on it real quick."[70] Presley made what would be his only appearance on Nashville's Grand Ole Opry on October 2; after a polite audience response, Opry manager Jim Denny told Phillips that his singer was "not bad" but did not suit the program.[71] Two weeks later, Presley was booked on Louisiana Hayride, the Opry‍ '​s chief, and more adventurous, rival. The Shreveport-based show was broadcast to 198 radio stations in 28 states. Presley had another attack of nerves during the first set, which drew a muted reaction. A more composed and energetic second set inspired an enthusiastic response.[72] House drummer D.J. Fontana brought a new element, complementing Presley's movements with accented beats that he had mastered playing in strip clubs.[73] Soon after the show, the Hayride engaged Presley for a year's worth of Saturday-night appearances. Trading in his old guitar for $8 (and seeing it promptly dispatched to the garbage), he purchased a Martin instrument for $175, and his trio began playing in new locales including Houston, Texas, and Texarkana, Arkansas.[74]

    By early 1955, Presley's regular Hayride appearances, constant touring, and well-received record releases had made him a regional star, from Tennessee to West Texas. In January, Neal signed a formal management contract with Presley and brought the singer to the attention of Colonel Tom Parker, whom he considered the best promoter in the music business. Having successfully managed top country star Eddy Arnold, Parker was now working with the new number-one country singer, Hank Snow. Parker booked Presley on Snow's February tour.[75][76] When the tour reached Odessa, Texas, a 19-year-old Roy Orbison saw Presley for the first time: "His energy was incredible, his instinct was just amazing. ... I just didn't know what to make of it. There was just no reference point in the culture to compare it."[40] Presley made his television debut on March 3 on the KSLA-TV broadcast of Louisiana Hayride. Soon after, he failed an audition for Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts on the CBS television network. By August, Sun had released ten sides credited to "Elvis Presley, Scotty and Bill"; on the latest recordings, the trio were joined by a drummer. Some of the songs, like "That's All Right", were in what one Memphis journalist described as the "R&B idiom of negro field jazz"; others, like "Blue Moon of Kentucky", were "more in the country field", "but there was a curious blending of the two different musics in both".[77] This blend of styles made it difficult for Presley's music to find radio airplay. According to Neal, many country-music disc jockeys would not play it because he sounded too much like a black artist and none of the rhythm-and-blues stations would touch him because "he sounded too much like a hillbilly."[78] The blend came to be known as rockabilly. At the time, Presley was variously billed as "The King of Western Bop", "The Hillbilly Cat", and "The Memphis Flash".[79]

    Presley renewed Neal's management contract in August 1955, simultaneously appointing Parker as his special adviser.[80] The group maintained an extensive touring schedule throughout the second half of the year.[81] Neal recalled, "It was almost frightening, the reaction that came to Elvis from the teenaged boys. So many of them, through some sort of jealousy, would practically hate him. There were occasions in some towns in Texas when we'd have to be sure to have a police guard because somebody'd always try to take a crack at him. They'd get a gang and try to waylay him or something."[82] The trio became a quartet when Hayride drummer Fontana joined as a full member. In mid-October, they played a few shows in support of Bill Haley, whose "Rock Around the Clock" had been a number-one hit the previous year. Haley observed that Presley had a natural feel for rhythm, and advised him to sing fewer ballads.[83]

    At the Country Disc Jockey Convention in early November, Presley was voted the year's most promising male artist.[84] Several record companies had by now shown interest in signing him. After three major labels made offers of up to $25,000, Parker and Phillips struck a deal with RCA Victor on November 21 to acquire Presley's Sun contract for an unprecedented $40,000.[85][c] Presley, at 20, was still a minor, so his father signed the contract.[86] Parker arranged with the owners of Hill and Range Publishing, Jean and Julian Aberbach, to create two entities, Elvis Presley Music and Gladys Music, to handle all the new material recorded by Presley. Songwriters were obliged to forgo one third of their customary royalties in exchange for having him perform their compositions.[87][d] By December, RCA had begun to heavily promote its new singer, and before month's end had reissued many of his Sun recordings.[90]
    Commercial breakout and controversy (1956–58)
    First national TV appearances and debut album


    The "iconic cover" of Presley's 1956 debut album[91] featuring a photo taken July 31, 1955, in Tampa, Florida[92]

    On January 10, 1956, Presley made his first recordings for RCA in Nashville.[93] Extending the singer's by now customary backup of Moore, Black, and Fontana, RCA enlisted pianist Floyd Cramer, guitarist Chet Atkins, and three background singers, including Gordon Stoker of the popular Jordanaires quartet, to fill out the sound.[94] The session produced the moody, unusual "Heartbreak Hotel", released as a single on January 27.[93] Parker finally brought Presley to national television, booking him on CBS's Stage Show for six appearances over two months. The program, produced in New York, was hosted on alternate weeks by big band leaders and brothers Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey. After his first appearance, on January 28, introduced by disc jockey Bill Randle, Presley stayed in town to record at RCA's New York studio. The sessions yielded eight songs, including a cover of Carl Perkins' rockabilly anthem "Blue Suede Shoes". In February, Presley's "I Forgot to Remember to Forget", a Sun recording initially released the previous August, reached the top of the Billboard country chart.[95] Neal's contract was terminated and, on March 2, Parker became Presley's manager.[96]

    RCA Victor released Presley's self-titled debut album on March 23. Joined by five previously unreleased Sun recordings, its seven recently recorded tracks were of a broad variety. There were two country songs and a bouncy pop tune. The others would centrally define the evolving sound of rock and roll: "Blue Suede Shoes"—"an improvement over Perkins' in almost every way", according to critic Robert Hilburn—and three R&B numbers that had been part of Presley's stage repertoire for some time, covers of Little Richard,[52] Ray Charles, and The Drifters. As described by Hilburn, these "were the most revealing of all. Unlike many white artists ... who watered down the gritty edges of the original R&B versions of songs in the '50s, Presley reshaped them. He not only injected the tunes with his own vocal character but also made guitar, not piano, the lead instrument in all three cases."[97] It became the first rock-and-roll album to top the Billboard chart, a position it held for 10 weeks.[93] While Presley was not an innovative guitarist like Moore or contemporary African American rockers Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry, cultural historian Gilbert B. Rodman argues that the album's cover image, "of Elvis having the time of his life on stage with a guitar in his hands played a crucial role in positioning the guitar ... as the instrument that best captured the style and spirit of this new music."[98]
    Milton Berle Show and "Hound Dog"

    Presley made the first of two appearances on NBC's Milton Berle Show on April 3. His performance, on the deck of the USS Hancock in San Diego, prompted cheers and screams from an audience of sailors and their dates.[99] A few days later, a flight taking Presley and his band to Nashville for a recording session left all three badly shaken when an engine died and the plane almost went down over Arkansas.[100] Twelve weeks after its original release, "Heartbreak Hotel" became Presley's first number-one pop hit. In late April, Presley began a two-week residency at the New Frontier Hotel and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip. The shows were poorly received by the conservative, middle-aged hotel guests[101]—"like a jug of corn liquor at a champagne party," wrote a critic for Newsweek.[102] Amid his Vegas tenure, Presley, who had serious acting ambitions, signed a seven-year contract with Paramount Pictures.[103] He began a tour of the Midwest in mid-May, taking in 15 cities in as many days.[104] He had attended several shows by Freddie Bell and the Bellboys in Vegas and was struck by their cover of "Hound Dog", a hit in 1953 for blues singer Big Mama Thornton by songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller.[101] It became the new closing number of his act.[105] After a show in La Crosse, Wisconsin, an urgent message on the letterhead of the local Catholic diocese's newspaper was sent to FBI director J. Edgar Hoover. It warned that "Presley is a definite danger to the security of the United States. ... [His] actions and motions were such as to rouse the sexual passions of teenaged youth. ... After the show, more than 1,000 teenagers tried to gang into Presley's room at the auditorium. ... Indications of the harm Presley did just in La Crosse were the two high school girls ... whose abdomen and thigh had Presley's autograph."[106]

    The second Milton Berle Show appearance came on June 5 at NBC's Hollywood studio, amid another hectic tour. Berle persuaded the singer to leave his guitar backstage, advising, "Let 'em see you, son."[107] During the performance, Presley abruptly halted an uptempo rendition of "Hound Dog" with a wave of his arm and launched into a slow, grinding version accentuated with energetic, exaggerated body movements.[107] Presley's gyrations created a storm of controversy.[108] Newspaper critics were outraged: Jack Gould of The New York Times wrote, "Mr. Presley has no discernible singing ability. ... His phrasing, if it can be called that, consists of the stereotyped variations that go with a beginner's aria in a bathtub. ... His one specialty is an accented movement of the body ... primarily identified with the repertoire of the blond bombshells of the burlesque runway."[109] Ben Gross of the New York Daily News opined that popular music "has reached its lowest depths in the 'grunt and groin' antics of one Elvis Presley. ... Elvis, who rotates his pelvis ... gave an exhibition that was suggestive and vulgar, tinged with the kind of animalism that should be confined to dives and bordellos".[110] Ed Sullivan, whose own variety show was the nation's most popular, declared him "unfit for family viewing".[111] To Presley's displeasure, he soon found himself being referred to as "Elvis the Pelvis", which he called "one of the most childish expressions I ever heard, comin' from an adult."[112]
    Steve Allen Show and first Sullivan appearance

    The Berle shows drew such high ratings that Presley was booked for a July 1 appearance on NBC's Steve Allen Show in New York. Allen, no fan of rock and roll, introduced a "new Elvis" in a white bow tie and black tails. Presley sang "Hound Dog" for less than a minute to a basset hound wearing a top hat and bow tie. As described by television historian Jake Austen, "Allen thought Presley was talentless and absurd ... [he] set things up so that Presley would show his contrition".[113] Allen, for his part, later wrote that he found Presley's "strange, gangly, country-boy charisma, his hard-to-define cuteness, and his charming eccentricity intriguing" and simply worked the singer into the customary "comedy fabric" of his program.[114] Just before the final rehearsal for the show, Presley told a reporter, "I'm holding down on this show. I don't want to do anything to make people dislike me. I think TV is important so I'm going to go along, but I won't be able to give the kind of show I do in a personal appearance."[115] Presley would refer back to the Allen show as the most ridiculous performance of his career.[116] Later that night, he appeared on Hy Gardner Calling, a popular local TV show. Pressed on whether he had learned anything from the criticism to which he was being subjected, Presley responded, "No, I haven't, I don't feel like I'm doing anything wrong. ... I don't see how any type of music would have any bad influence on people when it's only music. ... I mean, how would rock 'n' roll music make anyone rebel against their parents?"[110]


    The rivalry between variety show hosts Steve Allen and Ed Sullivan (pictured) helped catapult Presley to unprecedented fame.

    The next day, Presley recorded "Hound Dog", along with "Any Way You Want Me" and "Don't Be Cruel". The Jordanaires sang harmony, as they had on The Steve Allen Show; they would work with Presley through the 1960s. A few days later, the singer made an outdoor concert appearance in Memphis at which he announced, "You know, those people in New York are not gonna change me none. I'm gonna show you what the real Elvis is like tonight."[117] In August, a judge in Jacksonville, Florida, ordered Presley to tame his act. Throughout the following performance, he largely kept still, except for wiggling his little finger suggestively in mockery of the order.[118] The single pairing "Don't Be Cruel" with "Hound Dog" ruled the top of the charts for 11 weeks—a mark that would not be surpassed for 36 years.[119] Recording sessions for Presley's second album took place in Hollywood during the first week of September. Leiber and Stoller, the writers of "Hound Dog," contributed "Love Me."[101][120]

    Allen's show with Presley had, for the first time, beaten CBS's Ed Sullivan Show in the ratings. Sullivan, despite his June pronouncement, booked the singer for three appearances for an unprecedented $50,000.[121][101] The first, on September 9, 1956, was seen by approximately 60 million viewers—a record 82.6 percent of the television audience.[122] Actor Charles Laughton hosted the show, filling in while Sullivan recuperated from a car accident.[111] Presley appeared in two segments that night from CBS Television City in Los Angeles. According to Elvis legend, Presley was shot from only the waist up.[101] Watching clips of the Allen and Berle shows with his producer, Sullivan had opined that Presley "got some kind of device hanging down below the crotch of his pants–so when he moves his legs back and forth you can see the outline of his cock. ... I think it's a Coke bottle. ... We just can't have this on a Sunday night. This is a family show!"[123] Sullivan publicly told TV Guide, "As for his gyrations, the whole thing can be controlled with camera shots."[121] In fact, Presley was shown head-to-toe in the first and second shows. Though the camerawork was relatively discreet during his debut, with leg-concealing closeups when he danced, the studio audience reacted in customary style: screaming.[124][125] Presley's performance of his forthcoming single, the ballad "Love Me Tender", prompted a record-shattering million advance orders.[126] More than any other single event, it was this first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show that made Presley a national celebrity of barely precedented proportions.[111]

    Accompanying Presley's rise to fame, a cultural shift was taking place that he both helped inspire and came to symbolize. Igniting the "biggest pop craze since Glenn Miller and Frank Sinatra ... Presley brought rock'n'roll into the mainstream of popular culture", writes historian Marty Jezer. "As Presley set the artistic pace, other artists followed. ... Presley, more than anyone else, gave the young a belief in themselves as a distinct and somehow unified generation—the first in America ever to feel the power of an integrated youth culture."[127]
    Crazed crowds and movie debut
     

    Presley's definition of rock and roll included a sense of humor—here, during his second Sullivan appearance, he introduces one of his signature numbers.
    Problems playing this file? See media help.

    The audience response at Presley's live shows became increasingly fevered. Moore recalled, "He'd start out, 'You ain't nothin' but a Hound Dog,' and they'd just go to pieces. They'd always react the same way. There'd be a riot every time."[128] At the two concerts he performed in September at the Mississippi-Alabama Fair and Dairy Show, 50 National Guardsmen were added to the police security to prevent crowd trouble.[129] Elvis, Presley's second album, was released in October and quickly rose to number one. Assessing the musical and cultural impact of Presley's recordings from "That's All Right" through Elvis, rock critic Dave Marsh wrote that "these records, more than any others, contain the seeds of what rock & roll was, has been and most likely what it may foreseeably become."[130]

    Presley returned to the Sullivan show at its main studio in New York, hosted this time by its namesake, on October 28. After the performance, crowds in Nashville and St. Louis burned him in effigy.[111] His first motion picture, Love Me Tender, was released on November 21. Though he was not top billed, the film's original title—The Reno Brothers—was changed to capitalize on his latest number one record: "Love Me Tender" had hit the top of the charts earlier that month. To further take advantage of Presley's popularity, four musical numbers were added to what was originally a straight acting role. The movie was panned by the critics but did very well at the box office.[103]

    On December 4, Presley dropped into Sun Records where Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis were recording and jammed with them. Though Phillips no longer had the right to release any Presley material, he made sure the session was captured on tape. The results became legendary as the "Million Dollar Quartet" recordings—Johnny Cash was long thought to have played as well, but he was present only briefly at Phillips' instigation for a photo opportunity.[131] The year ended with a front-page story in The Wall Street Journal reporting that Presley merchandise had brought in $22 million on top of his record sales,[132] and Billboard‍ '​s declaration that he had placed more songs in the top 100 than any other artist since records were first charted.[133] In his first full year at RCA, one of the music industry's largest companies, Presley had accounted for over 50 percent of the label's singles sales.[126]
    Leiber and Stoller collaboration and draft notice

    Presley made his third and final Ed Sullivan Show appearance on January 6, 1957—on this occasion indeed shot only down to the waist. Some commentators have claimed that Parker orchestrated an appearance of censorship to generate publicity.[125][134] In any event, as critic Greil Marcus describes, Presley "did not tie himself down. Leaving behind the bland clothes he had worn on the first two shows, he stepped out in the outlandish costume of a pasha, if not a harem girl. From the make-up over his eyes, the hair falling in his face, the overwhelmingly sexual cast of his mouth, he was playing Rudolph Valentino in The Sheik, with all stops out."[111] To close, displaying his range and defying Sullivan's wishes, Presley sang a gentle black spiritual, "Peace in the Valley". At the end of the show, Sullivan declared Presley "a real decent, fine boy".[135] Two days later, the Memphis draft board announced that Presley would be classified 1A and would probably be drafted sometime that year.[136]


    Presley and costar Judy Tyler in the trailer for Jailhouse Rock, released October 17, 1957

    Each of the three Presley singles released in the first half of 1957 went to number one: "Too Much", "All Shook Up", and "(Let Me Be Your) Teddy Bear". Already an international star, he was attracting fans even where his music was not officially released. Under the headline "Presley Records a Craze in Soviet", The New York Times reported that pressings of his music on discarded X-ray plates were commanding high prices in Leningrad.[137] Between film shoots and recording sessions, the singer also found time to purchase an 18-room mansion eight miles (13 km) south of downtown Memphis for himself and his parents: Graceland.[138] Loving You—the soundtrack to his second film, released in July—was Presley's third straight number one album. The title track was written by Leiber and Stoller, who were then retained to write four of the six songs recorded at the sessions for Jailhouse Rock, Presley's next movie. The songwriting team effectively produced the Jailhouse sessions and developed a close working relationship with Presley, who came to regard them as his "good-luck charm".[139]

    Presley undertook three brief tours during the year, continuing to generate a crazed audience response.[140] A Detroit newspaper suggested that "the trouble with going to see Elvis Presley is that you're liable to get killed."[141] Villanova students pelted him with eggs in Philadelphia,[141] and in Vancouver, the crowd rioted after the end of the show, destroying the stage.[142] Frank Sinatra, who had famously inspired the swooning of teenaged girls in the 1940s, condemned the new musical phenomenon. In a magazine article, he decried rock and roll as "brutal, ugly, degenerate, vicious. ... It fosters almost totally negative and destructive reactions in young people. It smells phoney and false. It is sung, played and written, for the most part, by cretinous goons. ... This rancid-smelling aphrodisiac I deplore."[143] Asked for a response, Presley said, "I admire the man. He has a right to say what he wants to say. He is a great success and a fine actor, but I think he shouldn't have said it. ... This is a trend, just the same as he faced when he started years ago."[144]

    Leiber and Stoller were again in the studio for the recording of Elvis' Christmas Album. Toward the end of the session, they wrote a song on the spot at Presley's request: "Santa Claus Is Back In Town", an innuendo-laden blues.[145] The holiday release stretched Presley's string of number one albums to four and would eventually become the best selling Christmas album of all time.[146][147] After the session, Moore and Black—drawing only modest weekly salaries, sharing in none of Presley's massive financial success—resigned. Though they were brought back on a per diem basis a few weeks later, it was clear that they had not been part of Presley's inner circle for some time.[148] On December 20, Presley received his draft notice. He was granted a deferment to finish the forthcoming King Creole, in which $350,000 had already been invested by Paramount and producer Hal Wallis. A couple of weeks into the new year, "Don't", another Leiber and Stoller tune, became Presley's tenth number one seller. It had been only 21 months since "Heartbreak Hotel" had brought him to the top for the first time. Recording sessions for the King Creole soundtrack were held in Hollywood mid-January. Leiber and Stoller provided three songs and were again on hand, but it would be the last time they worked closely with Presley.[149] A studio session on February 1 marked another ending: it was the final occasion on which Black was to perform with Presley. He died in 1965.[150]


    Elvis with his parents upon Army induction, March 24, 1958

    On March 24, Presley was inducted into the U.S. Army as a private at Fort Chaffee, near Fort Smith, Arkansas. His arrival was a major media event. Hundreds of people descended on Presley as he stepped from the bus; photographers then accompanied him into the fort.[151] Presley announced that he was looking forward to his military stint, saying he did not want to be treated any differently from anyone else: "The Army can do anything it wants with me."[152]

    Soon after Presley commenced basic training at Fort Hood, Texas, he received a visit from Eddie Fadal, a businessman he had met on tour. According to Fadal, Presley had become convinced his career was finished—"He firmly believed that."[153] But then, during a two-week leave in early June, Presley recorded five songs in Nashville.[154] In early August, his mother was diagnosed with hepatitis and her condition rapidly worsened. Presley, granted emergency leave to visit her, arrived in Memphis on August 12. Two days later, she died of heart failure, aged 46. Presley was devastated;[155] their relationship had remained extremely close—even into his adulthood, they would use baby talk with each other and Presley would address her with pet names.[3]

    After training, Presley joined the 3rd Armored Division in Friedberg, Germany, on October 1.[156] Introduced to amphetamines by a sergeant while on maneuvers, he became "practically evangelical about their benefits"—not only for energy, but for "strength" and weight loss, as well—and many of his friends in the outfit joined him in indulging.[157] The Army also introduced Presley to karate, which he studied seriously, later including it in his live performances.[158] Fellow soldiers have attested to Presley's wish to be seen as an able, ordinary soldier, despite his fame, and to his generosity. He donated his Army pay to charity, purchased TV sets for the base, and bought an extra set of fatigues for everyone in his outfit.[159]


    Presley with Queen Ratna and King Mahendra of Nepal, Los Angeles, 1960

    While in Friedberg, Presley met 14-year-old Priscilla Beaulieu. They would eventually marry after a seven-and-a-half-year courtship.[160] In her autobiography, Priscilla says that despite his worries that it would ruin his career, Parker convinced Presley that to gain popular respect, he should serve his country as a regular soldier rather than in Special Services, where he would have been able to give some musical performances and remain in touch with the public.[161] Media reports echoed Presley's concerns about his career, but RCA producer Steve Sholes and Freddy Bienstock of Hill and Range had carefully prepared for his two-year hiatus. Armed with a substantial amount of unreleased material, they kept up a regular stream of successful releases.[162] Between his induction and discharge, Presley had ten top 40 hits, including "Wear My Ring Around Your Neck", the best-selling "Hard Headed Woman", and "One Night"[163] in 1958, and "(Now and Then There's) A Fool Such as I" and the number one "A Big Hunk o' Love" in 1959.[164] RCA also generated four albums compiling old material during this period, most successfully Elvis' Golden Records (1958), which hit number three on the LP chart.[165] , perceived the close relationship that developed between Presley and songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller as a serious threat to that control.[348] Parker effectively ended the relationship, deliberately or not, with the new contract he sent Leiber in early 1958. Leiber thought there was a mistake—the sheet of paper was blank except for Parker's signature and a line on which to enter his. "There's no mistake, boy, just sign it and return it," Parker directed. "Don't worry, we'll fill it in later." Leiber declined, and Presley's fruitful collaboration with the writing team was over.[349] Other respected songwriters lost interest in or simply avoided writing for Presley because of the requirement that they surrender a third of their usual royalties.[350]

    By 1967, Parker's contracts with Presley gave him 50 percent of most of the singer's earnings from recordings, films, and merchandise.[351] Beginning in February 1972, he took a third of the profit from live appearances;[352] a January 1976 agreement entitled him to half of that as well.[353] Priscilla Presley noted that, "Elvis detested the business side of his career. He would sign a contract without even reading it."[354] Presley's friend Marty Lacker regarded Parker as a "hustler and a con artist. He was only interested in 'now money'—get the buck and get gone."[355]

    Lacker was instrumental in convincing Presley to record with Memphis producer Chips Moman and his handpicked musicians at American Sound Studio in early 1969. The American Sound sessions represented a significant departure from the control customarily exerted by Hill and Range. Moman still had to deal with the publisher's staff on site, whose song suggestions he regarded as unacceptable. He was on the verge of quitting, until Presley ordered the Hill and Range personnel out of the studio.[356] Although RCA executive Joan Deary was later full of praise for the producer's song choices and the quality of the recordings,[357] Moman, to his fury, received neither credit on the records nor royalties for his work.[358]

    Throughout his entire career, Presley performed in only three venues outside the United States—all of them in Canada, during brief tours there in 1957. Rumors that he would play overseas for the first time were fueled in 1974 by a million-dollar bid for an Australian tour. Parker was uncharacteristically reluctant, prompting those close to Presley to speculate about the manager's past and the reasons for his apparent unwillingness to apply for a passport. Parker ultimately squelched any notions Presley had of working abroad, claiming that foreign security was poor and the venues unsuitable for a star of his magnitude.[359]

    Parker arguably exercised tightest control over Presley's movie career. In 1957, Robert Mitchum asked Presley to costar with him in Thunder Road, on which Mitchum was writer and producer.[360] According to George Klein, one of his oldest friends, Presley was offered starring roles in West Side Story and Midnight Cowboy.[361] In 1974, Barbra Streisand approached Presley to star with her in the remake of A Star is Born.[362] In each case, any ambitions the singer may have had to play such parts were thwarted by his manager's negotiating demands or flat refusals. In Lacker's description, "The only thing that kept Elvis going after the early years was a new challenge. But Parker kept running everything into the ground."[355] The operative attitude may have been summed up best by the response Leiber and Stoller received when they brought a serious film project for Presley to Parker and the Hill and Range owners for their consideration. In Leiber's telling, Jean Aberbach warned them to never again "try to interfere with the business or artistic workings of the process known as Elvis Presley."[181]
     

    Memphis Mafia
    Main article: Memphis Mafia

    In the early 1960s, the circle of friends with whom Presley constantly surrounded himself until his death came to be known as the "Memphis Mafia".[363] "Surrounded by the[ir] parasitic presence", as journalist John Harris puts it, "it was no wonder that as he slid into addiction and torpor, no-one raised the alarm: to them, Elvis was the bank, and it had to remain open."[364] Tony Brown, who played piano for Presley regularly in the last two years of the singer's life, observed his rapidly declining health and the urgent need to address it: "But we all knew it was hopeless because Elvis was surrounded by that little circle of people ... all those so-called friends".[365] In the Memphis Mafia's defense, Marty Lacker has said, "[Presley] was his own man. ... If we hadn't been around, he would have been dead a lot earlier."[366]

    Larry Geller became Presley's hairdresser in 1964. Unlike others in the Memphis Mafia, he was interested in spiritual questions and recalls how, from their first conversation, Presley revealed his secret thoughts and anxieties: "I mean there has to be a purpose ... there's got to be a reason ... why I was chosen to be Elvis Presley. ... I swear to God, no one knows how lonely I get. And how empty I really feel."[367] Thereafter, Geller supplied him with books on religion and mysticism, which the singer read voraciously.[368] Presley would be preoccupied by such matters for much of his life, taking trunkloads of books with him on tour.[243]
    Sex symbol


    The title and marketing of Girls! Girls! Girls! (1962) took advantage of Presley's sex symbol status.

    Presley's physical attractiveness and sexual appeal were widely acknowledged. "He was once beautiful, astonishingly beautiful", in the words of critic Mark Feeney.[369] Television director Steve Binder, no fan of Presley's music before he oversaw the '68 Comeback Special, reported, "I'm straight as an arrow and I got to tell you, you stop, whether you're male or female, to look at him. He was that good looking. And if you never knew he was a superstar, it wouldn't make any difference; if he'd walked in the room, you'd know somebody special was in your presence."[370] His performance style, as much as his physical beauty, was responsible for Presley's eroticized image. Writing in 1970, critic George Melly described him as "the master of the sexual simile, treating his guitar as both phallus and girl."[371] In his Presley obituary, Lester Bangs credited him as "the man who brought overt blatant vulgar sexual frenzy to the popular arts in America."[372] Ed Sullivan's declaration that he perceived a soda bottle in Presley's trousers was echoed by rumors involving a similarly positioned toilet roll tube or lead bar.[373]

    While Presley was marketed as an icon of heterosexuality, some cultural critics have argued that his image was ambiguous. In 1959, Sight and Sound‍ '​s Peter John Dyer described his onscreen persona as "aggressively bisexual in appeal".[374] Brett Farmer places the "orgasmic gyrations" of the title dance sequence in Jailhouse Rock within a lineage of cinematic musical numbers that offer a "spectacular eroticization, if not homoeroticization, of the male image".[375] In the analysis of Yvonne Tasker, "Elvis was an ambivalent figure who articulated a peculiar feminised, objectifying version of white working-class masculinity as aggressive sexual display."[376]

    Reinforcing Presley's image as a sex symbol were the reports of his dalliances with various Hollywood stars and starlets, from Natalie Wood in the 1950s to Connie Stevens and Ann-Margret in the 1960s to Candice Bergen and Cybill Shepherd in the 1970s. June Juanico of Memphis, one of Presley's early girlfriends, later blamed Parker for encouraging him to choose his dating partners with publicity in mind.[210] Presley never grew comfortable with the Hollywood scene, and most of these relationships were insubstantial.[377]
     

    Legacy

    "I know he invented rock and roll, in a manner of speaking, but ... that's not why he's worshiped as a god today. He's worshiped as a god today because in addition to inventing rock and roll he was the greatest ballad singer this side of Frank Sinatra—because the spiritual translucence and reined-in gut sexuality of his slow weeper and torchy pop blues still activate the hormones and slavish devotion of millions of female human beings worldwide."

    Presley's rise to national attention in 1956 transformed the field of popular music and had a huge effect on the broader scope of popular culture.[8] As the catalyst for the cultural revolution that was rock and roll, he was central not only to defining it as a musical genre but in making it a touchstone of youth culture and rebellious attitude.[379] With its racially mixed origins—repeatedly affirmed by Presley—rock and roll's occupation of a central position in mainstream American culture facilitated a new acceptance and appreciation of black culture.[380] In this regard, Little Richard said of Presley, "He was an integrator. Elvis was a blessing. They wouldn't let black music through. He opened the door for black music."[381] Al Green agreed: "He broke the ice for all of us."[382] President Jimmy Carter remarked on his legacy in 1977: "His music and his personality, fusing the styles of white country and black rhythm and blues, permanently changed the face of American popular culture. His following was immense, and he was a symbol to people the world over of the vitality, rebelliousness, and good humor of his country."[278] Presley also heralded the vastly expanded reach of celebrity in the era of mass communication: at the age of 21, within a year of his first appearance on American network television, he was one of the most famous people in the world.[383]


    Stamp depicting Presley issued by the German post office in 1988


    Presley's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

    Presley's name, image, and voice are instantly recognizable around the globe.[384] He has inspired a legion of impersonators.[385] In polls and surveys, he is recognized as one of the most important popular music artists and influential Americans.[f] "Elvis Presley is the greatest cultural force in the twentieth century", said composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein. "He introduced the beat to everything and he changed everything—music, language, clothes. It's a whole new social revolution—the sixties came from it."[393] Bob Dylan described the sensation of first hearing Presley as "like busting out of jail".[382]

    On the 25th anniversary of Presley's death, The New York Times observed, "All the talentless impersonators and appalling black velvet paintings on display can make him seem little more than a perverse and distant memory. But before Elvis was camp, he was its opposite: a genuine cultural force. ... Elvis's breakthroughs are underappreciated because in this rock-and-roll age, his hard-rocking music and sultry style have triumphed so completely."[394] Not only Presley's achievements, but his failings as well, are seen by some cultural observers as adding to the power of his legacy, as in this description by Greil Marcus: Elvis Presley is a supreme figure in American life, one whose presence, no matter how banal or predictable, brooks no real comparisons. ... The cultural range of his music has expanded to the point where it includes not only the hits of the day, but also patriotic recitals, pure country gospel, and really dirty blues. ... Elvis has emerged as a great artist, a great rocker, a great purveyor of schlock, a great heart throb, a great bore, a great symbol of potency, a great ham, a great nice person, and, yes, a great American


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